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There seems to be two ways to increase cAMP:

  • caffeine, which blocks cAMP metabolism
    • when G_as is activated, this will cause a build up of cAMP near G_as
      • may cause down regulation of G_as receptors
    • G_ai will not be affected (adrenergic a2 receptors not down or up regulated by caffeine use)
  • forskohlii, which activates the enzyme adenylyl cyclase
    • will cause a build up of cAMP near G_as regardless of G_as activation
    • will cause a build up of cAMP near G_ai receptors
      • in regards to adrenergic receptors, adreneline will ordinarily cause heart contraction (b1) and smooth muscle (passageway (artery, vein, gastro, repiratory), and organ) relaxation (a2), resulting in greater flow of blood (although a1 vasoconstricts blood flow to the skin, probably because skin blood flow is useful decreased during fight or flight). forskohlii would create the odd situation of heart contraction without smooth muscle dilation, increasing blood pressure.
    • may cause a deficiency in ATP (which, oddly enough, was not shown to be immediately upregulated by mitochondria (see below “mitochondria”)), although this might eventually be upregulated.

Whereas caffeine has the effect of amplifying normal G_as activation, forsk has the effect of G_as activation regardless of external signalling.
This will cause different effects on pathways:

  • GHRH [growth hormone]: amplified by caffeine. Increased by forsk.
    • caffeine good for exercise, forks good for cancer and good for heart attacks during exercise
  • GHIH: no effect by caffeine. Disabled by forks
    • forks good for cancer
  • ACTH [cortisol]: amplified by caffeine. Increased by forsk.
  • TSH [T4]: amplified by caffeine. Increased by forsk.
  • LH [testtosterone]: amplified by caffeine. Increased by forsk.
  • Epinephrine: amplified by caffeine. Increased by forsk.
  • PTH, Calcitonin: amplified by caffeine. Probably null effect (increase and decrease blood calcium) by forsk.
  • Glucagon [liver glucose production from glycogen] : amplified by caffeine, increased by forsk
  • hCG [found in placenta and cancer] : amplified by caffeine. Increased by forsk.
    • forks good for cancer

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