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Recommendations

  • seek optimal thyroid function by gradually increasing dose over days to identify dose corresponding to peak body temperature
    • standard daily recommendation of 150 mcg/ug is probably a good starting point
  • take twice a day to avoid NIS down regulation while maximizing iodide utilization

Thoughts

Autoimmunity / Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

See Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

High Intake Groups

Occurrence of hypothyroidism can be

  • Wolff Chaioff effect maladaptors
  • Thyroid damage from excessive activity coupled with [@modern stress]

Occurrence of thyroid cancer can be

  • Thyroid damage from excessive activity coupled with [@modern stress]

Xp

  • when first taking large amounts from kelp extract, I felt immediate energy and vision sharpness
  • I get low body temperature when not reguarly taking
  • I get pain near larynx when regularly consuming over 4mg per day
  • Seems to taste sweet when deficient

Dynamics


http://www.pathwaymedicine.org/

See Thyroid

Wolff Chaikoff effect

Excess iodide leads to inhibitory molecule production. These inhibitory molecules are more effective and decreasing thyroid hormone production than increased iodide is at increasing thyroid production. Normally, people adapt to increased iodide by down regulation of the iodide transporter (NIS). If they don’t adapt by this downregulation, a continuous reduction, through the inhibitory molecules, leads to hypothyroidism.

Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 March ; 10(3): 136–142. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2013.251.
decrease in expression of the NIS [sodium–iodide symporter present on the basolateral membrane of thyroid follicular cells] occurs by 24 h after exposure to excess iodine
... observed a transient reduction (lasting ~24 h) in the synthesis of thyroid hormones in rats exposed to high amounts of iodide administered intraperitoneally
... thought to be at least partially explained by the generation of several inhibitory substances (such as intrathyroidal iodolactones, iodoaldehydes and/or iodolipids) on thyroid peroxidase activity
Administration of iodine to patients with severe hyperthyroidism or thyroid storm is efficacious, as it results in an acute decrease in the release of thyroid hormones.

Hypothyroidism

  • In a study of >200 Chinese adults, subclinical hypothyroidism was more common in those supplemented with a 400 μg iodine tablet than in those given placebo.
  • Japan: A comparison of individuals with negative thyroid antibody titres living in coastal regions versus noncoastal areas of Japan showed that people from areas in which iodine-rich seaweed is abundant have an increased prevalence of hypothyroidism (12.1% versus 2.3%).43 Finally, a small study in Japan found that consumption of seaweed was positively associated with an increased risk of papillary thyroid cancers in postmenopausal women (HR [hazard ratio] 1.71, 95% CI 1.01–2.90).4

Forms

  • The form of iodide in plants is unknown. Iodide can be in many forms (I_3, I_2, KI, proteins with iodide, even thyroid hormones T3 and T4 have bound iodide to larger molecules)

“Monatomic Iodine” and other forms

The sodium iodide symporter of iodide {that transports iodide past the follicular cell into the acellular lumen wherein iodide is transformed to I2 then organified in the process of creating T3 and T4} transports specifically the iodide anion, and not (seemingly) I2 itself. Consequently, diatomic (I2) iodine or whatever deagles “plasma monatomic iodine” is, will probably not be transported into the thyroid. This leaves these other forms as having two potentials:

  • they will be transformed into iodide in the gut
  • they will be absorbed in the mouth and serve other unknown functions in the body apart from in creation of thyroid hormones:
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK285550/

    • Iodine, particularly in the form of I2, may enter additional metabolic pathways outside the thyroid. Rats administered I2 orally showed much less circulating free iodide and much more iodine bound to proteins and lipids than did animals given iodide (85). In another comparison of I2 versus iodide, administration of iodide to iodine-deficient rats eliminated thyroid hyperplasia much more efficiently than did I2. Additionally, I2 decreased lobular hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis in the mammary glands, while iodide increased the former and had no effect on the latter (86).
      • iodide ... eliminated thyroid hyperplasia much more efficiently than did I2
      • I2 decreased lobular hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis in the mammary glands

Apart from the unknown functions of these iodine forms, it appears agreed upon that they are antimicrobial (but that might just be by the nature of their unstable nature and reflect their general toxicity (including towards humans)).

Seaweed

Form of iodine in seaweed or “natural” iodine supplments is probably potassium iodide

  • seaweed products for iodine state ingredient of “potassium iodide”
  • one article specifies form of iodine in kelp is potassium iodide

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